New Year, New Resources Available to Combat Elder Abuse

Convergence

I subscribe to a number of listserves and received a post about a link to a recently published issue of the Department of Justice’s Journal of Federal Law & Policy (vol. 66, number 7, December 2018) which is entirely devoted to elder justice.  You can read it in its entirety here.

The issue is chock-full of resources and its article cover a range of topics, including:

Opioid abuse and elder justice.

Most folks don’t know there is a strong threat to elders posed by the estimated 1.7 million people addicted to opioids in this country.  In Vail last August, a local M.D. presented on this topic at the 10th annual CBA Elder Law Retreat.  Here is the sad fact – many elders who need their pain meds are being deprived of them by others, often family members, who steal the elder’s pain meds.  Here’s another link on that topic.

Transnational scam predators and elder victims.

Financial fraud has new and unanticipated expression in new technologies, and elders are potential prey for these scammers when elders use the internet to stay in touch with people important to them.  People who are victims of these scams are at risk of losing their accumulated wealth (often hundreds of thousands of dollars) and with that loss comes a spike in mortality rates of these victims.  While many of us might think of the internet as “anonymous” – most of us know better because a faceless and unknown predator can often inflict more harm than a known and identifiable scammer.

Elder abuse and neglect in American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

I found a monograph published in 2000 which had useful information about the prevalence and reporting of elder abuse in several Native American communities.  Sadly, a 2014 publication states that the prevalence of elder mistreatment in this population is unknown due to the fact that only smaller studies of certain communities have been conducted.

What I found most helpful and hopeful about this issue of the DoJ’s Journal however, was the article about the coordination of federal, state and local partnerships involved in elder justice for the reporting, investigating, prosecution of perpetrators and the provision of support services and redress for victims.  The two authors of this article used an estimate that as few as 1 in 24 cases of elder abuse is reported to authorities (at 138).

The federal government is a key player in assisting state and local communities to recognize a common definition of elder abuse as well as to provide guidance for federally regulated financial institutions and assist in the tracking and prevention of internet and telecommunication fraud and theft targeted at elders.

That’s all for now… and Happy New Year!

© Barbara E. Cashman and www.DenverElderLaw.org  2019. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Barbara E. Cashman and www.DenverElderLaw.org  with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Elder Abuse and Domestic Violence

Elder Abuse Hastens Death

October is domestic violence awareness month.  I have previously explored some of the links between these two dangerous expressions of violence -elder abuse and domestic violence, but I thought it was time to delve into this topic a bit more deeply.  The National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse identifies domestic violence as

an escalating pattern of violence or intimidation by an intimate partner, which is used to gain power and control.

Two broad categories of domestic violence against the elderly can be identified:

“Domestic violence grown old” 

is when domestic violence started earlier in life and persists into old age.

“Late onset domestic violence”

begins in old age. There may have been a strained relationship or emotional abuse earlier that got worse as the partners aged. When abuse begins or is exacerbated in old age, it is likely to be linked to: events such as retirement, disability, changing roles of family members and sexual changes.

Many people might find it curious that some elders would enter abusive relationships late in life, but there is a strong connection between elder abuse and family violence.  Family violence can manifest in a variety of ways, from callous and violent actions toward a pet or other animal which can often lay the groundwork for the “power over” relationships with others, particularly those who are in low power positions such as elders.  Following on this thread, the American Humane Society has identified connections between animal cruelty and human violence.

Effort is Needed to Improve and Streamline the Collection of Data and the Study of Elder Abuse

The study of elder abuse – encompassing its variety of forms and definitions – is still in its infancy.  The Urban Institute’s research report from June 2016, What Is Elder Abuse? A Taxonomy for Collecting Criminal Justice Research and Statistical Data, notes that there is no uniform, national-level definition of elder abuse because the response to elder abuse has occurred primarily at the state and local level.  The report’s proposed taxonomy seeks to grapple with the disconnect between estimating the incidence of elder abuse nationwide when there is such a wide variation in definitions of elder abuse among the states, not to mention how these incidences of such events or crimes is reported among the states.  The report looks at the many layers of elder abuse in terms of what types of acts constitute elder abuse; what kinds of people are the victims; what is the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim; when is elder abuse a crime or not a criminal offense, and why it is important to collect data concerning reports which fall below the threshold of elder abuse.

The fact that the study of elder abuse  – as a form of interpersonal and often domestic or intimate partner violence – is in its infancy does not mean, however, that there are not valuable and helpful resources available, such as these resources from the National Center for State Courts’ Center for Elders and the Courts, which offer educational information for laypersons as well as proposed standards for state courts to improve the courts’ ability to recognize and effectively respond to victims of elder abuse, as well as offering guidance to guidance to and effectively prosecution of these offenses by law enforcement.

The Troubling Intersection of Domestic Violence and Elder Abuse for Elder Women

One of the troubling intersections I came across in research for this post was the element that the elder woman victim may need to pay close attention to which state “system” she enters to report the abuse, as the domestic violence and adult protective service agencies operate independently and define causes of abuse differently.  I found a very helpful article on this topic published by two faculty members of the School of Social Work at Loyola University Chicago.

Fortunately, there is a developing approach to the challenge of identifying, reporting and prosecuting elder abuse which is multidisciplinary in nature.  Not all elder abuse is criminal.  For most of us practicing in the field of elder law for more than a “few years,” there was often a refrain from a law enforcement agency that the alleged abuse was not serious enough (or not a large sum of money involved) to warrant prosecution and so was “a civil matter.”  I remain concerned that there is a wide gulf between what is sufficient to activate the criminal prosecution of elder abuse and how the civil law (including probate proceedings) can provide applicable and appropriate relief to the fullest extent appropriate.

I believe the best policy is to have persons unsure about reporting suspected elder abuse to make the call to law enforcement so that the appropriate government authority can determine the scope of the investigation of the suspected abuse and whether it is appropriate for prosecution.  This reporting, even if it results in no investigation or subsequent prosecution, remains important for data collection purposes.  In this context, as in so many others. . ..  information is power.

© 2017 Barbara Cashman  www.DenverElderLaw.org

Colorado’s New Law on Mandatory Reporting of Abuse or Exploitation of Elders

 

An Irish Bridge

Like every other state in our nation, the population of Colorado is getting older.  Longevity and independence can have a price for some of us, and there are many people in our population who are elders and are at risk of exploitation and abuse.

Gov. Hickenlooper signed this act into law on May 16, 2013.  It makes Colorado the 48th state to have such legislation in place. Click here  to read the Act.   Prior to this law, there was no mandatory reporting of elder abuse.  Elder abuse, as defined by the statute, includes physical and emotional abuse as well as financial exploitation.  The new law will provide additional protections to at-risk elders.

So here’s a bit of background:  In 1991, Colorado enacted the Adult Protective Services (APS) system, which is designed to protect vulnerable or at-risk adults who, because of age or mental or physical ability, are unable to obtain services or otherwise protect their own health, safety, and welfare. Under current law, an “at-risk adult” is any person over the age of 18 who meets these criteria.  Prior to Colorado’s new mandatory reporting  law, members of certain helping professions were encouraged to make reports of known or suspected abuse and provides a telephone hotline for all citizens. Among its many provisions, this bill creates a new class of protections for “at-risk elders,” who are defined as any person age 70 or older. The law also makes a number of changes to the APS system.

So – how does it work? Starting July 1, 2014, members of helping professions listed in the statute as “mandatory reporters” are required to report known or suspected abuse of at-risk elders.  (You can read a follow-up post about mandatory reporters here.)  The report must be made within twenty-four hours and the penalty for not reporting is a class 3 misdemeanor.   A person who files a report in good faith is immune from civil or criminal prosecution.

Here’s a brief Q&A on this new law…

What else does this new law provide?

The bill also makes applicable existing penalties for theft-related crimes, caretaker neglect, and making a false report for offenses against at-risk elders.

What about changes in how law enforcement handles these matters?

Law enforcement agencies are required to complete a criminal investigation when appropriate and to provide a summary of investigation reports to the relevant county department of social services and district attorney.

How about training for law enforcement personnel?

The Peace Officer Standards Training (P.O.S.T.) Board in the Department of Law is required to develop and implement a training curriculum no later than January 1, 2014. Training is to assist peace officers in recognizing and responding to incidents of known or suspected abuse and exploitation of at-risk elders. On and after January 1, 2015, local law enforcement agencies are required to employ at least one officer that has completed the new P.O.S.T. training. The board is authorized to charge a fee to participants for the training.

And how will the mandatory reporting be implemented?

The Colorado Department of Human Services  (something about APS and county) is directed to implement, beginning  January 1, 2014, a program to raise awareness among both public and the mandatory reported about mistreatment, exploitation and self-neglect among at-risk adults, including at-risk elders.

What about the work that county departments of social services (typically through APS) have been doing so far with their investigations?

County departments of social services are mandated under Section 26-3.1-103, C.R.S., to investigate all reports of abuse, exploitation, or neglect of at-risk adults. Reports are evaluated and investigated according to the rules established by DHS. DHS rules currently classify responses as a referral, no response needed, urgent and requiring follow up, requiring a response within 24 hours or requiring a response within 3 days, followed by appropriate services as needed. Services can range from assisting persons with obtaining public benefits and providing case management to seeking emergency placements and guardianship of the at-risk adult.

Colorado data shows that in FY 2011-12, a total of 11,000 new reports were filed. Of this number, 4,733, or 43 percent, required an investigation. In addition, a total of 1,750 investigations were carried forward from the prior fiscal year. Overall, cases requiring investigation have increased by an average of 2 percent per year.  You can read more important information about the new law here .

I will be blogging more about the topic of financial exploitation of elders, as I have previously.  It will be interesting to see how the approach of law enforcement agencies toward the financial exploitation of Colorado elders will change with this new law – with the reporting requirements as well as with the training that law enforcement will get.  I am optimistic that this law will help soften the bright line distinction that many law enforcement agencies have drawn between what constitutes exploitation which warrants criminal investigation and prosecution and that which is otherwise civil in nature, meaning that the victim must undertake his or her own civil remedies.

©Barbara Cashman 2013     www.DenverElderLaw.org